Why Does Marcos Declared Martial Law

In by jonathan

Marcos` imposition of martial law in September 1972 had a major impact on the 1971 Constitutional Convention. Marcos stopped the leadership of the Convention`s “opposition bloc,” which wanted to ensure that Marcos would not stay in power longer than the 1935 constitution allowed. Eventually, a group of delegates supporting Marcos led by Gilberto Duavit presented a brand new draft constitution, which they submitted to Malacañang for ratification just two months after martial law was imposed. [57] Faced with the crisis, Marcos wrote an entry in his diary in January 1970:[38] “I have several options. One of them is to cancel the subversive plan now by the sudden arrest of the conspirators. But this would not be accepted by the people. Nor could we get the Huks, their legal frameworks and support. Neither the MIM (International Maoist Movement) and other subversive [or frontal] organizations, nor the clandestine ones. We could let the situation develop naturally after massive terrorism, wanton murder and an assassination attempt against my assassination and a coup, and then declare martial law or suspend the privilege of habeas corpus – and arrest everyone, including legal frameworks. For the moment, I am leaning towards the latter. » The anniversary of the imposition of martial law is September 23 (not September 21) Six hours after Enrile`s alleged assassination attempt and citing more than 15 bombings, chaos and lawlessness, Marcos issued Proclamation No. 1081, declaring and imposing martial law throughout the country.

[50] By imposing martial law, Marcos suspended the habeas corpus mandate and the 1935 constitution, dissolved Congress and locked the doors of Batasang Pambansa, and assumed legislative and executive power. Proclamation No. 1081 was dated September 21, 1972, but was actually signed on September 17. The official announcement or proclamation of the proclamation did not take place until half-past seven in the evening of September 23, proving the plan to declare martial law before the alleged ambush on Enrile. He had also ordered his military collaborators to start arresting his political opponents about twenty-two hours before the announcement and to close all media and retail stores (fashion, food, religion, sports). [59] The work of the Convention was hampered by the imposition of martial law in September 1972 by President Ferdinand Marcos; Military units tasked with enforcing martial law were given a list of 400 people to be arrested, mostly harsh critics of Ferdinand Marcos` government. This included a number of members of the Constitutional Convention. [16] On January 17, 1981, Marcos issued Proclamation No. 2045, which officially lifted the imposition of martial law but retained many of its powers. The repeal coincided with Pope John Paul II`s visit to the Philippines and the inauguration of new U.S. president and Marcos ally, Ronald Reagan. [99] In response to the announcement, former President Diosdado Macapagal, who was then the leading member of the United Nationalist Democratic Organization, said that the lifting of martial law after 8 years was “in name only, but not real.” Marcos responded to the criticism by telling the National Assembly: “Members of the opposition only want to save their individual skin against national interests.” [100] Marcos, son of Ferdinand Marcos Sr., who was overthrown in a popular uprising in 1986, said his father declared martial law not to stay in power, but because the “government had to defend itself.” In 1970, student activism intensified and many student activists joined communist movements.

Kabataang Makabayan (Patriotic Youth or KM), a political organization founded by José María Sison to be a national extension of the University of the Philippines Student Cultural Association,[32][33] conducted study sessions on Marxism-Leninism and intensified the deployment of urban activists in rural areas to prepare for people`s war. [34] [35] The line between left-wing militants and communists became increasingly blurred as a considerable number of militants advanced in KM joined the Communist Party, also founded by Sison. [34] Earlier, during the 1969 election campaign, students promoted a mock campaign called the Dante Movement for the President, which likely referred to the founder of the New People`s Army, Bernabe “Kumander Dante” Buscayno. [36] KM members protested in front of Congress and threw a coffin, stuffed alligator, and stones at Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos after his State of the Union address. At the presidential palace, the activists broke down the door with a fire truck, and when the door broke and gave way, the activists burst into the palace compound and threw stones, pillboxes and Molotov cocktails. In front of the U.S. Embassy, protesters vandalized, burned, and damaged the embassy lobby, sparking a strong U.S. protest.