Wolves generally dominate other canid species in areas where they are both present. In North America, cases of wolves killing coyotes are common, especially in winter when coyotes feed on wolves killed. Wolves can attack coyote burrows, dig up and kill their puppies, although they rarely eat them. There is no evidence of coyotes killing wolves, although coyotes can hunt wolves if they outnumber them.  According to a 1921 U.S. Department of Agriculture press release, the infamous Custer Wolf relied on coyotes to accompany him and warn him of danger. Although they fed off his murders, he never allowed them to get close to him.  In Eurasia, interactions between wolves and golden jackals have been observed, the latter being comparatively low in areas with a high density of wolves.    Wolves also kill red, polar and corsak rifles, mainly during disputes over carcasses, and sometimes eat them.   The wolf has a very dense and fluffy winter coat with a short undercoat and long, coarse protective hair.  Most undercoats and some protective hairs fall out in the spring and grow back in the fall. The longest hair is found on the back, especially on the forequarters and neck. Especially long hair grows on the shoulders and almost forms a comb on the upper part of the neck. The hairs on the cheeks are elongated and form clumps. The ears are covered with short hair and protrude from the fur. Short, elastic and narrowly adjacent hairs are present on the limbs, from the elbows to the tendons of the heel.  The winter coat is very resistant to cold. Wolves in northern climates can rest comfortably in open areas at -40°C (-40°F) by placing their snout between their hind legs and covering their faces with their tails. Wolf fur provides better insulation than dog fur and does not collect ice when the hot breath condenses against it.  Fear of wolves is pervasive in many societies, although humans are not part of the wolf`s natural prey.  How wolves react to humans depends largely on their previous experiences with humans: wolves that do not have negative experiences with humans or are related to food may show little fear of humans.  Although wolves can react aggressively when provoked, such attacks are usually limited to rapid bites of extremities, and attacks are not suppressed.  Submission – Recognizing the dominance or higher rank of another animal. Wolves do this in a variety of ways, including lying on their backs and exposing their belly, lowering their tails (or sticking their tails between their legs), flattening their ears against their heads, and taking a lower-body position. Another behavior of submissive wolves is to beg for food. Wolves sometimes kill dogs, and some wolf populations depend on dogs as an important food source. In Croatia, wolves kill more dogs than sheep, and wolves in Russia seem to limit stray dog populations. Wolves can exhibit unusually brave behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by humans, sometimes ignoring people nearby.
Wolf attacks on dogs can occur both in domestic yards and forests. Wolf attacks on hunting dogs are considered a major problem in Scandinavia and Wisconsin.   The most commonly killed hunting breeds in Scandinavia are harriers, with older animals being the most vulnerable, probably because they are less shy than younger animals and react differently to the presence of wolves. However, they are not as specialized as those found in hyenas.   Its molars have a flat chewing surface, but not to the same extent as the coyote, whose diet contains more plant matter.  Females tend to have narrower snouts and foreheads, thinner necks, slightly shorter legs, and less massive shoulders than males.  A popular method of wolf hunting in Russia is to catch a pack in a small area by surrounding it with flatbread poles that carry a human odor. This method relies heavily on the wolf`s fear of human odors, although it may lose its effectiveness as wolves become accustomed to the smell. Some hunters may attract wolves by imitating their calls. In Kazakhstan and Mongolia, wolves are traditionally hunted with eagles and hawks, although this practice is decreasing as experienced falconers become increasingly rare. Shooting wolves from planes is very effective due to high visibility and direct lines of fire. Several species of dogs, including the Kyrgyz Borzoi and Tajgan, have been bred specifically for wolf hunting.  Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas, ticks, lice and mites. The most harmful to wolves, especially puppies, is the scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), although unlike foxes, they rarely develop adult mange.  Lice like Trichodectes canis can cause disease in wolves, but rarely death. Ixodes ticks can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.  The tick Dermacentor pictus also affects wolves. Other ectoparasites are chewing lice, sucking lice and fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis.  More recently, some male Italian wolves are of canine origin, suggesting that female wolves breed with male dogs in the wild.  In the Caucasus, ten percent of dogs, including herding guard dogs, are first-generation hybrids.  Although mating between golden jackals and wolves has never been observed, evidence of jackal-wolf hybridization has been discovered through mitochondrial DNA analysis of jackals living in the Caucasus and Bulgaria.  Wolves are found throughout Eurasia and North America. However, deliberate human persecution due to livestock predators and fear of attacks on humans has reduced the wolf`s range to about one-third of its historic range; The wolf is now extinct (locally extinct) from much of its range in Western Europe, the United States and Mexico, as well as completely in Ireland, Great Britain and Japan.
In modern times, the wolf is mainly found in the wild and in remote areas. The wolf can be found between sea level and 9,800 ft (3,000 m). Wolves live in forests, inland wetlands, scrubland, grasslands (including arctic tundra), pastures, deserts and rocky peaks on mountain tops.  Habitat use by wolves depends on prey frequency, snow conditions, livestock density, road density, human presence and topography.  Viral diseases transmitted by wolves include: rabies, distemper, canine parvovirus, infectious hepatitis in dogs, papillomatosis, and canine coronavirus.  Wolves are a major host of rabies in Russia, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, and India.  In wolves, the incubation period is eight to 21 days and causes the host to agitate, abandon its pack and move up to 50 miles (80 km) per day, increasing the risk of infecting other wolves. Infected wolves show no fear of humans, most documented wolf attacks on humans are attributed to rabid animals.
Although distemper is fatal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves except in Canada and Alaska. Canine parvovirus, which causes death from dehydration, electrolyte imbalances and endotoxic shock or sepsis, is largely survivable in wolves, but can be fatal to puppies. Wolves can contract infectious canine hepatitis in dogs, although there is no trace of wolves dying from it. Papillomatosis has only been detected once in wolves and is unlikely to cause serious illness or death, although it can alter feeding behaviour. Canine coronavirus has been recorded in wolves in Alaska, with infections occurring most frequently during the winter months.  Bacterial diseases transmitted by wolves include: brucellosis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, tularemia, bovine tuberculosis, listeriosis and anthrax.  Wolves can catch Brucella suis in wild and native reindeer. Although adult wolves tend not to show clinical symptoms, they can severely weaken the puppies of infected females. Although Lyme disease can weaken wolves, it does not appear to significantly affect wolf populations. Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine and can cause fever, anorexia, vomiting, anemia, hematuria, jaundice and death. Wolves that live near farms are more susceptible to the disease than those that live in the wild, likely due to prolonged contact with waste from infected animals.